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Steel Wire Ropes & Slings - Fittings

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Safety Factors

A Factor of safety is a multiplier of the Nominal Strenght to ensure the safety of the rope over its service life. by incorporating the normal rope wear and stresses that may occur in the course of general use.

 

 

Nos. Type of Service Minimum Safety Factor
1 Hoisting Equipment 5.0
2 Houlage Rope 6.0
3 Overhead & Gantry Cranes 6.0
4 Jib & Piller Cranes 6.0
5 Derricks 6.0
6 Small Electric & Air Hoist 7.0
7 Hot Ladle Cranes 8.0
8 Guy Rope 3.5
9 Wire Rope Sings 5.0
10 Mine Shafts  
Depths to 500 tt 8.0
Depths to 500 - 1000 tt 7.0
Depths to 1000 - 2000 tt 6.0
Depths to 2000 - 3000 tt 5.0
Depths to 3000 or more 4.0
Right ropes for the right job

Types of ropes for various applications are listed below. The operating conditions, including the design and construction of the installation affec1the service life of the wire rope.

General Engineering Rope 

6 x 19. 6 x 21. 6 x 25. 6 x 36.6 x 37 

6 x 21. 6 x 24.6 x 25.6 x 36.8 x 31

Earth Moving Equipment 

Logging

7 x 19,  7 x 37 Groups

6 x 19, 6 x 21, 6 x 25, 6 x 31 Groups
Shipping 6 x 12, 6 x 19, 6 x 24, 6 x 25, 6 x 36
Oil Industry

7 x 37,  7 x 7, 7 x 19, 8 x 31 Groups

6 x 19, 6 x 21, 6 x 25, 6 x 26, 6 x 31
Mining Industry

6 x 37 Groups

6 x 7, 6 x 19, 6 x 21, 6 x 25, 6 x 2

Discard Factors

Wire ropes can be discarded if the following conditions are noticed as failure may occur much below the ultimate tensile strength:

  • Wear and Tear : Internal - Wear & Tear of wires within strand and between strands. External - Scrubbing of wire rope against external surfaces and due to drum with low speed
  • Corrosion : Loss of metal due to corrosive environment.
  • Fatigue : Repeated reversal of stress leads to brittle fracture of wires
  • External Deformation : Presence of Corkscrew Formation. Cage Formation. Looping of Wires or strands. knots. construc-tion. flattening. curling. puffing & kinks
  • Action of heat : Excessive heat dries out ropes leading to risk of internal wire rupture
  • Type, Position & Number of wire ruptures : Wire ruptures in nests or strand break
  • Abnormal Stretching : Paralleling of the strand due to untwisting of the rope
  • Surface Embrittlement : Work hardening of the wire surface leading to fa - tigue failure
  • Core Collapse : Non - circular wire rope shape
  • Fitting Time : Expected rope life from previous experience
  • Accidental Damage
Breaking Load and Mass for 6 X 19 (12/6/1) Construction
Num. Dia. Approximate Mass Minimum Breaking Load corresponding to tensile designation of wires of
      1570 1770 1960
  FC SC FC SC FC SC FC SC

1

mm

2
kg/100m
3
kg/100m
4
kN
5
kN
6
kN
7
kN
8
kN
9
kN
9 28.0 30.8 39.0 42.0 44.0 47.5 49.0 52.6
10 34.6 38.0 48.0 52.0 54.0 58.7 60.0 65.0
11 41.9 46.0 58.0 63.0 66.0 71.0 73.0 70.7
12 49.8 54.0 69 75 78 84.6 87 94
13 58.5 64.3 82 88 92 99 102 110
14 67.8 74.5 95 102 107 115 118 127
16 88.0 97.4 124 133 139 150 154 166
18 112 123 156 160 176 190 195 210
19 125 137 174 188 196 212 217 234
20 138 152 193 208 218 235 241 260
22 167 184 234 252 263 204 292 314
24 199 219 278 300 313 338 347 375
26 234 257 326 352 368 397 407 439
28 271 - 378 - 426 - 472 -
32 354 - 494 - 557 - 617 -
36 448 - 625 - 705 - 781 -
38 499 - 697 - 785 - 870 -
40 554 - 772 - 870 - 964 -
44 670 - 934 - 1053 - 1166 -
48 797 - 1112 - 1253 - 1388 -
52 936 - 1305 - 1471 - 1629 -
Breaking Load and Mass for 6 X 37 (18/12/6/1) Construction
Num. Dia. Approximate Mass Minimum Breaking Load corresponding to tensile designation of wires of
      1570 1770 1960
  FC SC FC SC FC SC FC SC

1

mm

2
kg/100m
3
kg/100m
4
kN
5
kN
6
kN
7
kN
8
kN
9
kN
8 22.1 24.4 30 32 33 36 37 40
9 28 30.8 37 40 42 46 47 51
10 34.6 38.1 46 50 52 56 58 62
11 41.9 46.1 56 60 63 68 78 76
12 49.8 54.8 67 72 75 81 83 90
13 58.5 64.3 78 84 88 95 98 105
14 67.8 74.6 91 98 102 110 113 122
16 88.6 97.4 118 128 134 144 148 160
18 112 123 150 162 169 183 187 202
19 125 137 167 180 188 203 209 225
20 138 152 185 200 209 225 231 250
22 167 184 224 242 253 273 280 302
24 199 219 267 288 301 325 333 369
26 234 257 313 338 353 381 391 422
28 271 297 363 392 409 442 453 489
32 354 389 474 512 534 577 593 639
36 448 492 600 648 676 730 749 809
38 499 549 668 722 753 813 834 901
40 554 608 741 880 835 902 924 998
44 678 - 896 - 1010 - 1119 -
48 797 - 1066 - 1202 - 1331 -
52 936 - 1252 - 1411 - 1562  
Know your Wire Ropes
Wire ROpes
Wire Rope is a machine

A wire rope is a machine, by dictionary definition : "An assemblage of parts that transmit force, motion, and energy one to another in some predetermined manner and to some desired end." A typical wire rope rnccontori hundreds of individual wires which are formed and fabricated to operate at close bearing tolerances one to another. When a wire rope bends, each of its many wires slides and adjusts in the bend to accomodate the difference in length between the inside and the outside bend. The sharper the bend, the greater the movement.


Every wire rope has three basic components
  • The wires which form the strands and collectively provide rope strength
  • The strands, which are helically around the core and
  • The core, which forms a foundation for the strands.
Measuring Diameter of Wire Rope
Measuring Diameter

Unreeling & Uncoiling Wire Ropes

Unreeling : During the installation, the rope should be mounted on a reel if in coil form The reel should be mounted on a horizontal shaft so that it is free to turn, One method is to put a shaft through the centre of the reel and jack it up so that the reel will revolve freely, The rope is pulled straight ahead keeping it tight to prevent it from loosening up on the reel, A board held against one flange may be used as a brake to keep the reel from revolving too fast, The other method is to fix the reel on shaft and mount the shaft on bearing so that reel with shafting will revolve, In this method, a brake can be fixed on the shaft by the reel to see that the rope is tight during the installation.


Uncoiling : To Uncoil the newly received rope, it is placed on the turn able and the upright bars positioned to suit, The ties of the coil are now cut and the rope taken off the coil by walking away with the . outer end of the rope while allowing the turnable to revolve.

   
Correct Way of Unreeling Incorrect Way of Unreeling

Kinking

Kinking of wire rope can be avoided if ropes are properly handled and installed. Kinking is caused by the rope taking a spiral shape as a result of unnatural twist in the rope, One of the most commonuses for this twist is improper unreeling and uncoiling, Kinking may also occur in a rope in use if slack rope is allowed and is pulled before carefully coiling up the slack.


   
Kinking of wire rope Result of rope due to kink

Preparing the wire rope for use
  • Storage of the wire ropes : Wire rope is a steel product and as such is subject to rust and corrosion. Therefore, all precautions should be taken in storing both new and used ropes to ensure that the deterioration is minimum. The rope should be stored under cover, protected from rain and moisture. Used wire rope should be kept coiled up, lubricated and kept free of twists and kinks.
  • Economical Lengths of ropes : Highly important is the economical length of the wire rope to be cut off the reel or coil. It should neither be very short as nothing will be left for cutoffs at the drum end to permit shifting the rope, nor should it be too long as the excess length will pile up in the multiple layers on the drum which cuts down service materially.
  • Cutting a Wire Rope : A wire rope can be cut at a desired point by any suitable method which does not disturb the wires. Special care has to be taken in the case of percussive or shearing methods to ensure that the seizing or the rope lay is not disturbed. Oxy - acety1ene cutting should not be employed as it is likely to affect the wire and lubrication.
  • Seizing : A seizing is a wrapping of wire laid around a rope to prevent it wires from 'kinking' or moving to slacken themselves when the rope is cut between two adjacent seizing. Before cutting a wire rope, seizing should be placed on each side of the place where the rope is to be cut to prevent unlaying of the strands. The length of the seizing and the diameters of the wires used for seizing depends on the rope diameter

Wire Rope Inspection

An inspection should include verification that none of these removal criteria are met by checking for such things as :
• Surface wear, normal and unusual
• Broken wires : Number and location
• Reduction in diameter
• Rope stretch ( elongation )
• Integrity of attaohments
• Evidence of abuse or contact with other objects
• Heat damage
• Corrosion


Information to be given with the enquiry or order

• Lengths and exact pornts between which the measurement is made ( In the case of rope with terminal fittings )
• Diameter
• Construction of rope
• The type of galvanizing required
• Preformed or Non - Preformed
• Tensile strength of wire
• Breaking Strength of rope
• Whether ordinary lay or Lang's lay. right - hand or left - hand
• Particulars of ends and fittings. whether spliced. socketed or plain, With dimensioned sketched if limiting conditions apply
• Particulars of inspection and tests required
• Whether to be delivered on reels or in coils
• No of Indian Standard



Mechanical Slings as per IS 5245 (Part II) 1971, Types of Single Part Slings

   
Basket Hitch Choker Hitch
Basket Hitch Choker Hitch

Max. Safe working load in kg. for Single Part Slings
Min. Rope Size Vertical Basket Choker
3 70 140 50
4 130 260 100
5 200 400 150
6 250 500 190
8 550 1100 110
9 670 1340 500
10 800 1600 600
11 1000 2000 750
12 1200 2400 900
13 1400 2800 1050
14 1750 3500 1300
15 2000 4000 1500
18 2500 5000 1875
19 3000 6000 2260
20 3300 6600 2475
22 4000 8000 3000
24 4600 9200 3450
25 5000 10000 3750
28 6500 13000 4875
32 8000 16000 6000
35 9200 18400 6900
36 10400 20800 7800
38 12000 24000 9000
40 12700 25400 9625
44 16700 33400 12625
48 20000 40000 15000
52 23000 46000 17250

Multiple Leg Slings
Multiple Leg Slings Multiple Leg Slings Multiple Leg Slings
SI - 13 SI - 14 SI - 15

Min. Rope Size in mm Permissible working load of one leg slings at 0 0   Safe Working loads for two legs slings
  (Kg) at 0 0 30 0 60 0 90 0 1200
3 70 140 135 120 100 70
4 130 260 250 225 185 130
5 200 400 385 350 280 200
6 250 500 480 450 350 250
8 570 1100 1050 950 775 550
9 600 1340 1300 1150 950 670
10 800 1600 1550 1400 1100 800
11 1000 2000 1900 1750 1400 1000
12 1200 2400 2300 2100 1700 1200
13 1450 2800 2700 2400 2000 1400
14 1700 3500 3400 3000 2500 1700
15 2000 4000 3850 3450 2800 2000
18 2500 5000 4800 4300 3500 2500
19 3000 6000 5800 5200 4200 3000
20 3400 6600 6400 5760 4600 3300
22 4000 8000 7700 6900 5600 4000
24 4600 9200 8900 7900 6500 4600
25 5000 10000 9600 8600 7000 5000
28 6500 13000 12500 11200 9200 6500
32 8000 16000 15400 13800 11300 8000
36 10400 20800 20100 17800 14700 10400
38 12000 24000 23200 20800 16900 12000
40 12700 25400 24500 22000 17900 12700
44 16700 33400 32200 28900 23500 16700
45 20000 40000 38600 34600 28200 20000
52 23000 46000 44400 39600 32400 23000


Turn Buckles
Turn Buckles
Assemble of double ended type streching screw

Nominal Size Proof Load Safe Working Load
A kN kN
M6 2.0 1.0
M8 3.0 1.5
M10 6.0 3.0
M12 9.0 4.5
M14 12.0 6.0
M16 15.2 7.6
M20 22.4 11.2
M22 32.4 16.2
M24 40.0 20.0
M30 63.0 31.5
M36 90.0 45.0
M45 142.0 71
M52 190.0 95

Eye Bolt
Eye Bolt
Thread Size D Maximum Axial lifting (Will SWL) capacity
(1) (2)
MB 0.16
M10 0.25
M12 0.40
M16 0.63
M20 1
M24 1.6
M30 2.5
M36 4
M42 6.3
M48 8
M56 10
M64 16
M72 x 6 20
M80 x 6 25
M90 x 6 32
M100 x 6 40


Chain Slings Gantry Frame Platform Trolley Hooks Plate Lifting Clamp
Chain Slings Chain Slings Chain Slings Hooks Plate Lifting Clamp
Thimble Turn Buckle Connecting Link Cable Carrier
Thimble, U Clamp Turn Buckle Connecting Link Cable Carrier